Oؾ OV۫

s. úO e

( , {V, , o=Vګ߭ O})

1

þ߫߭ W, W sĮ۾, sĮ۾ G0 Gs "۾V OV۫0 0VڮOڥ , Oګڭsڥ ^_%} 0ިګ V J0. }߬ lڡ0 }sW }ۭO{% }ڥ }ګO "O'0 t "dPQ{' V OV۫ڥ ĥ GVګ߭ V~ ɥ0 W ~ҥۧ. CV Vګ߭ 0t }ڭ s~. V, ڶ eV OQ OQ V0sy B0 OЮ歾W Dئ. OV۫ڥ ĥ O} ¾ ɥ0 0t ۥVګ߭ B 0OޮW _, ګڭ V߫OQ 0 J0s ھVګ߭ 0s}ޫ.

1.0Vڥګ (12 }۫) "0W}}ۭO' "^d%OQ~ P~%}' G0 DP߫߭ @ B OV۫0 V۫ƾ DOڡW G0 s. O0} O .

2. @VXګ "^0îú y' (12sګ }۫) "}߬}ߡ..... ߫OQVy%0 O}ڡߥ%0' G0ߥګۭ .ؾ ~߽ڰ }ߡ O0} OV۫ B _}0 إۧ. A * _lV߯ ( OV۫ ^} 0ۿ , 1970) * OPQ O| m(o} 1960-61) B C ڥⴥ HO, , 0 G0 OV ҡ޾ V۾߫ڥ P "HO' V۾߫0 BOQ OV۫OQ 000 ۨW ҥۧ.

3. OV۫ V Py }ڥ 0åۿO 0Vں߾ 0 "O' G0ߥOQ "dOQ' A0ڴå dOQ 0ڥ OQ @ O G0 }ۨګ, Oڥ ^O BOQ J0 G0 * @} ~ۥګ.

4. s. . Yګ @ (~{ ߥ, 1934) }ߡ OPQ O| lo (V 1968) }ګ lڡ DOڡۥ O 0V~VV OV۫OQ ګ߭ V~ҥۧ. "Psڬ޾O' G0ߥ @ ߮ (ۮ) Oy%PO, ^} (_}) ^ī(^y) }%O(J}桫O) 0}ۥ ڶV Aڥ l 0 OPQ ۥ. "D} ~Oy' "ڴ' 0}ۥ O{}V OV۫ڥⴥګ }ڬ0 DOڡۥ "Aںn~' OV۫ڥlOQ Mⴥګ @ }}ۡ.

5. P.. 13 }۫ڥ ^0sګ @ڥO ^}þ "Ҧ}O۫lo0 }0 0V t' G0ߥ @ }۫ڥ dڭ ި^}þ "OO' ۡ lOQ 00ҥ0ߥ OPQ E.(0V R:Oޮt, .O. 1981)"OOګV0' "0s', "۰s' G0 sVڶV OyV OV۫ڮ0VVV y%W @ʾV}ڡ0 @ ۩ҥ۪.

6. 12 }۫ڥ "OyޯO' }V V0ڥ ,14 }Oڥ *ۢ Oɾ }V y "OV۫' G0 ڥ W ڰoW DRV0t.(OPQ @ R). A0ڴå OV۫0ߥ }: ^ګ . @ J0 V۫ƾ . OV۫ G0 eۮö0. (O- e۾0) @ sVڶۥߥ0 Oy OV۫0ߥ 0VڮOڥ A}.

V OV۫ڥ 0å۾ A0ڴWߧ @ OV Py}ڥ B} lV0 OPQ ۥ. OV۫ڥ OڢOQؾ O B "" ɩ}@ f}'' G0 s ""^0ں'' G0 ҡڥ ڥ OV۫ڥ Oo O B "ʮڦ' G0 a0 , "H' ڥڥ ^ګV - B A0ڴå ĥ0ߥ BOQ OW @ 0t ۥ. B ^%W.

7. 12 }۫ڥ O0ë ۡ "} : eۮö0: O}:' G0ߥ OV۫OQ 0ۦW G0 OPQ إۧ.

8. OdV%Oګ "O}ޥڥ0 OþV y}~V' G0 OګڭtV VV ⴥ OV۫ þVڥ VV BڷO. HO0 "OþV' G0 lO, "O}ޥڥ' @0 oۥ }ǥ AV þV OV۫ڥߧ - B * V OۿQ{ @ E. V0lV OV۫OQ G0 J0 ҥ۪0}ګ߭ OۿQ{ @ 0tҥۧ. (OV۫ O0, 0V, 1980) BV0V B~^V ګڭ V߫OQ 0 Gs }ʥ DRVګ߭ ڷO:-

1. 7 }۫ڥ |ڥ d0ڬ0 Oګڭs } AlV A0ۥ0, q } B ~%} 0 q V00 DTҥ. (~޾ 0~O, z 0: ۥ ҡ, e) q } B0V sO Oګڭs nVګ߭ 0 G0 * ۥ ҡ @ ګڭ إۧ.

2. Ds߯ ~ޢ%0 V (13 }۫) OV۫ AlVګ߭ }sW G0 I~. (ڭ0e V0^۾% R) B ~ޢ% ۥ ҥ0ë0 A0ڴå ~ "O_t' OV۫ګ߭ A0ҥګ0 I~ ҥڪɥ. (O0} OV۫ l C DRɥ.) ~ޢ% }: A0ڴå0 ^ B V߫%W.C Gs ^V OV۫ڥ ިګ o0 }ʥߧ.

2

OV0%d0VVV, OV۫OQ 00 G0ߥOQ CV V @V} . Py}ڥ 0åۿO lVۥ }߫t }OQ}ߡ, A0ڴå ޣlO, Oڥ OڢOQ ߽ sĮ۾- sĮ۾V. BVV R_}ۥ, ڰoۥ Vإߧ B J0 Ħ0 D OV0ߥ A AlVګ߭ tV ߫ڥmoV}ڡ. ںyV, 0V}0}, ۨڴɨ۫V C 0VڮOVV V^ @0Vڪ AOҽOWⴥ @O. " l'OQ BV ⴥ OlW? @ OV ĥ Hoo @0Vګ߭ DV0t G0ߥګۭ 0ިګ VڷOW. ĮO ɨ åO VW Os O @VV 0O% ~ Ot߾W @ 0O% Bǥ }۫V Dڶߥ. A @VV Dإ 0 A`%OWߧ QV0s 0}Vګ߭, OyVګ߭ V~ ڥۥ ߫߭ JW0~.

DzV: Oؾ OV۫OQ W }0O ~noV, }߫t }OQ~ d} B , sĮ۾, sĮ۾, OڢOQV y| y| (OҮ}) Pl J0 }ګWⴥ. A0ڴè l, sĮ۾ , }OQ}ߡV dP~%, PlV O Bګ߭ sڶߥ.

3

Oڦ0 OVtV B Oګ%lOڥ Oؾ ^}0}ڥ "Oؾ OV۫' @ sĮ۾. þ J0o syOQ Ǯڦ0 OsWW VloOQ }W Dڧ @0_ C úޥ Oǥ.C O }, W}, , }0}, ߡ- C @0V åO 0VOV @}Oۥ 0ګڭ}߫ 0Py%}߫ 0 oW 榥 Gڭߥ. ҡ޾, e۫ڮڥ0 ɺV} ߽ @e}, 0åۿO OV 0ں% y%W 0OVڥ. A OOQW @0} ɺd߫߭ @0WOҥ Oؾ OV۫ Må۾ ҡ޾ 0}OQ }߯ e۫ڮڥ0, e۫ڮڥ0Vګ߭ 0 ҡ޾߮O0 ڶߥۥ 0}ګ߭ no.Bګ O0} "ҡ޾ e۫ڮڥV ߨڴҤ~' G0 O榥ۧ. BV Oؾ OV۫ O0t ~ۥ z0 O۸no O OV0, 0ګڭW 0 0߫߭ OO0s, YlV0s @椾}ڡ V ~ OyVګ ڰoW Oy~.

"e۫ڮڥ' G0 J0 ڶ % }= O^ 0 ڶ. e۫ڮڥ @ 0~ R G0ߥ ߽ 0~ , Vګ߭ V~O *0} AO0ߥ dۥ e۫ڮڥګ }W QVګ߭ ީڷO G0 }ڡ. e۫ڮڥ0 ڡ, Bo00} sڶߥ G0 Oڥۥ, ⴥ Q (Oڥ Os) ǥ0 @~0å۾ۦV Bۧ.

@} Ҥ~ e۫ڮڥOy, Aߥ0 @Q Ot B OV (D: sĮ۾, }OQ}ߡ ) B _ޫ @ _ޫ0Vګ߭ ^` DO0t. - G0 J0 ۥɥ. A C ۥ %߮%OVڥ. @} Ҥ~- }}ۥ 0 Bǥ, @ Ҥ~ 0} y%y 0Vں߾W ߥ - ڶߥ @ OV VX }OtO٥, A ~V O0sڥڧ߭ PQߥګ߭ @t}ۡ Wߥ0 ڶߥ. ڥ Oؾ BOQ Oo o0}V.O AlV0} OV۫ڥ ߩY% 0 ߥO ~VW O{ⴥ B. W @ګ߭ lo, @椾 0}ڥ}ڡ V~. V 0QV0s O Os ⴫: o OyV0 YlV0s ⴫: B0 @% "e۫ڮڥ' 0}OQ ڶߥ G0ߥ ڰoV}ڡ. D: B0 } OV۫ڮå%V.

4

Oؾ OV۫ڥ @ AlV VV V RV B :-

1.ߨ^ ۥ ~ޢ% Ds߯ l A0ҥ0 I~.( إ) B 13 }߫OQ 00ҥߧ. B Bڭo 0ިګV JVVڷP.

0ިO * 0e O0 ú B }0} 1204 z0V« ګ0 O}ۡtV DRɥ. O}ߡ G0 Al, O}ۡtV0 Al As, @0 l 0}W. C O}ߡ ߽ OV۫ڥ % AW 0ɥ. @ ۥ, C ګ }0 }ʥ DRV}ڡ.

2. OV۫ڥ @}M} ۥڰ O ~%߶, ۾y 0VV O}%. Bګ O (Bګ ~%߶0 J0 }, @ek}0ߥ B0 }) Oڥ OmoO d0 _}ڭۥ ߫lo0 0VVV, OV۫ ۾y 0VVV ڥV ɥ.B %ۥ. A ⴥ , ⴥ @ۥ GM B. ^ګ 0V, ڥڮþV, ľ-BV Ƭ0 ľ "@lo Oڢ'V 0 ڷOV}ڡ.(t: OPQ O|lo ~%߶ OV۫V ..) ~%߶ Oګ߭ OPQ O|lo 1590-1630 G0 y%ҥۧ.

3.. 1564 |Oɾ l%. B ڥ Oؾ DĶ }ڡ OV۫ 0V. (O0y|

Oɾ Oº0l OVڥ 1480 ~ ĺڴۥ VV sĮ۾ Oޫ 0_O DR B. B OV۫} ^}þ }ʥ 0V~. B _` īV @%W. )

4.0~%, @}, %ڤ VV ߫ %V B~ɥ G0 OV , Os OQ Q }۫VM O.

5.1600 0} ɮW 0V } ⴥګ߭ O0s @OQ %VV %ǥ OV۫0 0VڮO Oo WڷO0ߥ EOɥ.

oҥ O, İ, _}, O}ڡV OV۫ڥ DRV, úV W Oy R Oy C oOV O}%V OV۫0O%0 Dإߥ, @ګ lo Oy. CVۥ Oؾ B OV۫ڥ AP, V 0S, @ 0 ۫ڥ0sڦ0, _}OV, ưVV, O}ڡ OVV A Os V߫ @tҥߧ ~ Ot. ߽ _}İ-Oɥ OV۫ڥ0} J0 ڪƾ O s VX _ڦߧ ګV0 _}W Oy}ڡ. o , Vؾ ڥ } B O }ߡ s 0}V }VV, Os}VV Q % Dإ 0 ^`.VW RV D Oo.

5

ڥ Oؾ OV۫ڥ ~loV- }0O, sV }ߡ D}ڡOګڭs. (@ ۭ ~lo) }0O-sV0 W GsW ⴥ Oۥ D}ڡOګڭsڥ OV۫ @ھ, ߽, 0VV}0} BV sWW0} ڭWߧ J0 ~lo.

sĮ۾ߥ JV B JM úޥۥ Ylo O G0 ~lo O sV~noV ~ O0ⴥ O}OW.

Oؾ s߸ÿ0 sy W V0 PyOQ ^0WV }0O ~lo; D}ڡOQ OڥV sy VX, ګ, _OQ0V fV V: sV ~lo (D.O ~lo ) O B. }: Oؾ OV۫ J0 ڥǥߧ B0 sV~no Oߥ}ߡ G0 EOɥ. HO0, }0O~no å RW }, å. @ Oګڭsڥ O0 D ⴥ @0. O0 ߾ OV۫ sVy åڦ0 0 Oګڭsڥ ~ Om O~þ0 0sګ0 Ŀ}0 . (t: "OV۫ O0ڥ' O0} R. .O0 ߥ ۾O B ~߫߭ oO ګV ~ҥۧ.) }0Oy ںy WV sWOQ ^` }}ڡ. sW Oߥ @mo Ono }ߡ 0s Pl, VtV 0y OޥV 0}ۥ WV 1930 }ګO }0P Oǥߧ G0 ڨV ~}ۡ. (Oɥۥ @O ߾ ^0W @0 B إ ~.)

Oؾ OV۫ ~loVW V Oۿ} G0 E R_} AV . sV, D}ڡOګڭs BVW } RW @ھ, ľɨ۫VV 00ҥߧ , ۥV, sO - B GsOQ J0 ~. }0O~lo }OW OOQ 00 B RV B.

1.0Vt @߫ s.. Vdlo t K V0ڥ ^0O J0 _}. B }0O~no ڥ _}Wߧ 17 }۫OQ ¥ߥ0 s.lo }. (t:O0- o)

2.CVV ~%߶ O.

3.OVs ؾ ߨ ۤڥ R0lڥ B OV۫ƾ ڥ O}ڡ-}Oo O} V. ߨ« }ߡ Vy~. B ۾y C V V } s G0ߥ O}O. ~%߶ 0V "}Oo'. @ګ߭ @ګ ߨ¾ _ҥګ0ߥOQ ۥ A.

4.1700 V O0, OsV Vإڧ0 ~~.

5.1812OQ « AۤOQ %ڤڦ0 W}0 DR. C }0O~noڥ AWڷO.

Jlo Oؾ OV۫ڥ V . P.. 1700 OOQ 0 B0 Oy OOQ

榥ۧ G0ߥOQ Om }, ڥ ..e۫ڮڥ 0Vľߥ J0 ڢڥ ƫ _}V ڰo P. O0ۮڥ DOߥ O} ߫}ګڥ V0lOQ ߫ %V R_} B~ɥ. (* O.G.Dۨ t ~.) ڥV 0 }ߡ OV۫ڮ0VV ^ګɨ۫V @ڴ߫ڦ0 OV۫ڥ DV-OVګ߭ @¾ ۨڴ0 ɥ0 _ҥۧ. R ĺڴ AVV, I~VV 0ۦW }P% OV۫ Oؾ 1500 V Oo ^}W}0 1600-1700 ߨ @ , V۫V B0 Oy ڥ ~OQ 0ߧ0 Eڶߥ.

6

OV۫ Gs ~loV ڥ B~ڥ 1925 W @ک J0. 1925 0 1950 W O }ߡ 0}ڥ C OV, C O R0sV Rۥ. 1925 V OV۫ڥ _}, V۫, 0V}0} BV J0 ҥڪW}ߡ }ߡ Oo öߥڪW }ߡ. 1950 V @ zVۥ. A @ ګ߭ @Vto @. A }ߡ ߡ C o0 1950 0}ڥ @ک O{ҥ Tۥ z0 OV۫ڥ , V OQW ڥ o0 @ګ~ 0}OQVۥڭO. A _} ިۺ00} B @ک OV۫ڥ ƾ 0OzV V0ۥ þWO }ګ þ}ڭVV ƾ߫߭ sڥ ޫOQ Os B Oĥ V߫% þ}ڭV s. oW (Form) o0 OV۫ Yn}W @ V úOQ JVۥ B Oĥ PO ^0s ~0}ҥ O d OO 0Vڥ O{O0sߥ B0 }ʥ {V. VW ^ګɨ۫ڥ OV۫ C @ک V0OQ JVۥ PO ~, ɨڴ, ^, , A%O , }0ڥ ھ-dOV o V~߫߭ ۩}.

7

0W}, _}, 0Vɨ۫, 0Yl, } O BV }0O, sV B B0V J0. C B - Gs ~loV - Vګ߭ _}ޫ.

0W}ڥ }0O - sV J0 AWߧ, }ۡ R VV0} ~% J0 ~ B. ڥV G}ߡVs, Vs, VOV J0o }V B. }0Oy V} eVm }ۡ. sWګ }ڨ. sVy ^0s, ߥڧ ۥV AOڥ _OQ. }0Oy ۥV h0O ^`. }0P ^0s J0 @ۨy Qۥ ڥ ۥ. OV۫ 0W} ۩ ۻP Ҧ, D}o loߧ. ~ Oڡ AW C 0W}ڥ ۨڴ}߫߭ D}ڡ Oګ߭ .Ʈ ۾y V}, Md߫ۢ V}, ۾y DM} V}, .~߽ڰ ۾O, V%ڰ VtV, .Oߥ Os loM} ߥڧ ۥO ʾW tۧ. }0O~no Oګ%lO MW}ګ߭ V~O s O OV M.

O OV۫ڥ }, VMs }, }ڥ O{}VM ~% sڥߧ. R_}W ľ, ~ۥ su f B eg ^īV0 @ o ڴO oۥߥ. sW O{} RW "}ڡ' è۫ ~ߥ. }0Oy } }Msڥ O~ߥ; V , ߥڪ, m, Oګ }O{}V, dO, Ǿߥڪ 0}ۥ ڬVV oۥ O{}Vإߧ }ëVyW ɨڴɥ. OV۫ڥ ۥ, }, }, ߡ ɫ B Jlo JM oW G}ڡڥ O۬%~W M.

OV۫ڥ Vګ } OQ } O V G0ߥOQ Jپۥ. V 0 Vګ0ګ Bt ~ 0VڤڥڷOۥ PWߧ CV Oڢۮ}V } O{~ۧ. ǥڧ V }, AV W ~ ^ _`. l VޮO| e̾0} V }_}y, R{%OV olo oO tڧ e @y|ڰ V }ߺ y|ګ V0s } ɥO.

}0O~lo sV~loV } RW ^O(Suggestive)ڥߧ, ۥ @P(Expresive Descriptive)ڥڧ. @ھ }ۥڥߧ. O0 OOyV 0O~O ^īV }ߡ }V0 ۻP OsM}ڥߧ. A D}ڡOګڭsڥ ~no } ۫ۥ ľߦM, W ڥګ߭ ڥۻھW }ڡ. }, ߽ C Gs D}ڡOګڭsڥ ڥڪ~ @% Ҧ s榥. D}ڡOګڭsڥ Oɥ } ú BV sV -}MO V ڰoW Oy~ߧ ~ඹ Oɥګ @ھOQW þ}ڭ s}ۡ. sV ~no V B~_ ⴫}ۤڮ% D}ڡOګڭsڥ Oɥ } R. O߫ MV, _mo{ ^M Vu M}ۥ ڨV }ھVM Os}OM} V} V~O C Oګ߭ } }¥ۧ.

}MOy O{}ڥ P egVMV su egV, WP% @ Wy, ^` (reach) B ^īV B. sW } } ^`, }MOy d, y| V , ڥ O{} B @۫ OoV.

OV۫V V Oİ nǥ JM O۰O o. {O Oİ߫߭ Bo ߢ%W ⴫: ot B߭}ۡ. O}dk moV y|V Oڮ, OM, , ڦ, -C I, V, , V, O, ^y,O_ Bo ڥ d. Ml }ߡOlo, Ms }MOy V o=, Pl, Vt, Ms, O, @tuV, ۮ, dPl, }Qlo, OOlo, ڥO, Oy%}, O歮, ^ګ歮, , OޥV M, O`Ms, O߽, OVsV, Veg- B y WV. Bګ߭ MåۿOW Vۥ ڦM O~ ڦ, ضy|V Vs @Mn }ھ}ۡ. BV {V O. { ۬ O }MP ^`. sV ~no "x' AO~ GڥO Oǥߧ DإsV Dmۥ ڥOVګ߭ . y| , y| y|VV }O PlV. y| PlOQ Oں }no(}s Pl) GM lo Plɥ. ߬V }MO~no "߫ Pl'M }O Pl Bߧ sW Ms }ۡ. ګM}ڬV }O Plɥ. "d'VV Pl, Dإ }VV Ms, VtV. O Pl, y| Pl GM R ɺV. P} OQ K Vt, sW mo, ǫ @moVګ߭ et, @OQ mo tVګ߭ ~ Vt MsVګ߭ ҥڪt}ۡ. }0O~no B ҥڪtlo PlM} B. }MOy z OޥV Olo O B~^V B.

R {%OVV , OM, , Oڮ, B Q R y|V. z O }Vګ߭إ, _` }VV @MVO @O}Vګ߭ "U' AOڥ . CV O{| V, VڥڧOQ ߥV. C }ߡ ߥV ۨڴMå۾ߥ úڥ R_} MO}V. V {V }ۡ ɨV. @ d}V W, }, KMO, ڥڽ M}ۥګ߭ RMO s}ۡ. BOQ `} V. @~O۾M} @%O }OQ, zO, BMf}, OMtO, %- M}ۥ Pl VV o R{%OV. , W, y| V. y| VV @PQ lo y|Vګ߭ Oҥ ^no (٫ ) Bs}ۡ. C ^noV ɫڥ }ߡ ګs ɨV. Ol y|, dy|, y|y| GM y| ڥ ɺVV. ^noV ɫ, ~ DMsVM ھMOۥ JM RsڥM} Oy y| JM @߼} o."O' OİV BPQM} D}oo @MM }}ڡ.

y|VO, ^noV, V, ߥV B }MOy ~no ^` O=, ɨڴ, OVO Oy}ڡ. sVy y|VO ~ . }MOy {%O o {V }¥. Jno }MP V V}å su. Pl, R{%O, Ay, d, G su. JWM moVګ߭ }M ګ߭ ڮڰW O }MOy ڥڪ~. sW V, RW y| MlPQM} OV sOW yڪ} Bǥߧ Oy}ڡ. }MOy V MsOQ }߫, O{}OQ ޺߫ s}ڡ. }MO- sVV O{}V }OQ ɨ۫ڥ

} Oy. OV۫ڥ W Oؾ V , _, y|, OVX moVM %yV}ڡ. M y|OQ ڥ tV, Oǫ tVګ߭ ~ڧ. G ڨV M} Oڮ tO}ۡ. y| OQM} ҥڪ}V Q VMmV O. OV۫ڥ }VO GMߥ ~ MVڥ }ھV A߫lO. V}ګM }è sVګ s s, @ }, ľV ڨV MV OQ A. ڥ O{} W, ڥګۭ }è }ګs}ۡ, ڥ O . @V @ ۽Msګ߭ }Mڶߥ. %V MM ҥڪۥ , VM }M }èV Oİߢڴ%VM ڦ }V OV۫ڥ }VO JM r lOڮO. JM ~O @߼}. OV۫ڥ Jپ }Vګ߭ r O, lOO, %OMV ڶߥ. B }VڬW @ }M}=MW, JM O} }èV ۥV JM }Msڥ }V ۥV ɻڭ ڦM @OڡV}ڡ.

OOV RW }lo @M }VO. }߽ }VOM AlOQ f }M ^Ms Oɥ¥ۧ. qO ڥ @%, MۥV OQ, ۥV RMsګ MsګVV. }_}yOQ @MR ۨڴ}V. C }èVV } yek}ڰ~, Oڮī, M}ߡ, OڡOMp, MVek ۥMۥV ez, ú} }Vګ߭ t ez, ek B BڷO. Bؾ ~V D}ڡ ҥڪWڷO.

{ VޮO| lo, V ޥ, O߫ ۶ Vu, OM M , O ^MM} @O }V Al }VO QVګ߭, dOګ߭ }Mۧ. { }VOM} %MVڮy%W, }ޫOİ, %, ۥRVM Ot ۫ O %~. sĮ۾ߥ }VO, o- e۫ڮڥV JM o OWߧ, BOQ Oؾ ʺ}: VMO ߫߭ M As M @M OyW.

Oؾ t ^ڥ BM OۮOۥ }ߥڧ - (eV) GMߥګ߭ B ۡڶߥ. B Y%ۥ B~٥ߧ. 1556 ߥ ګڥ }ߥڧ DRɥ. (OM} "l') }ߥڧ , O{}ǥ OV۫. s }ߡ } }. }èV M Ds߯ Bߧ, ¾ ~M % @ߺ Ml, yO @߼}ۥڥߧ. B } {O, }ߥڧ dV ~ ^OP, C ڬo, D}QlQ @ګ. OOګ߭ Bt ~ ~M Mf C O ߢڴ% ۥڥߧ. O s Gڰ}OQ PQ }ߥڧ MYV GM ګڭ @Md OQ. 

}ߥڧ ~ ڨV Xۥ, @ BMV O. }ߥڧV nOl Blo å%V dV}ڡ. C_ %V }ߥڧV } _`. }ߥڧ s O۫ߺ, @ OɥڬWڷOۥ ɥ}ߡ Oۮy Gs G}ڡڥ. l, }ߥڧV @%VO ~O @ Ҥ}W s߷O. AV ڥe}, ڥޫoۥ C OO~߫߭ D^`} O~V Oy ۨڴ.

}MO- sV (D}ڡ O. ) ~loV OW W _` MO%ǥ , B~_ %V ⴫: Ono ڰ ú O{}ڡ. sVy ڨV, V} }MP ھ t, }MO sV ~loVګ߭ JM MVڥ }M å%ҥ, _` M^ ĺڴV BOQ Oy. }MO ~lo }VO ^` V~ ۩ҥߧ, @ ú sW AW. }MP WP%M} O{}Vګ߭ CV sW Oyߥ. D}ڡ Oګڭsڥ Oɥ }M @ھM} sV }MO Gs ~loV Aۥ ú ¥. }MO-sV Gs }MsV JM OO s}ߡ. ( de : M^O O. p no) 

B JM R ھګ߭ ۡڷO. }MO~no , ߽V OڢOQؾ @Oz GM }ګ߭ O إۧ, ~ۧ. B O= @Oګ Bǥ M ~%. }MP , R{%O B sW ~%} V @o. R{%OV }MPV- OڢOQV B. ^Ms eVmV OڢOQؾ. C fǾ PyVڥ ۤV @M} ^MsV OV}ڡ M. OV۫, Vt, OޥV y| ڥ O }no ( @ Ono ^ ) ګ߭ Oڥ }M, }߫t }ۨګV OyO. OڢOQ- OV۫V Oy @sOQ ۫ MM M @MV. }MO~noV ڥ }OQ~V B sV - }MO OڢOQV O ۫ @MV @M} ۫ ĥ Os }}ڡ. C @Mګ߭ ڽڥ, ^` ҥڪۥ OڢOQؾ߫߭ } V{ҥߥ }MO ~lo OڢOQؾ @Oz GM @þ OyW. O O}OQ O޾V B }۫V MMڦM OڢOQؾ OV۫ڦM ~%, ú s ۨڴ. HOM M OڢOQؾǾ }VO , @ڥۧ MW}ƾ BߧM ~إ }ڡ.

10

OV۫ڮMVV ߡɫڥ su. }, V}, ڮy, ۾yV d} O}}, } e۫ڮڥ, B~, OİO, @%{O, V VM M MVV. O Gs OV ߫OQ PQ MVV MVOQ Mڶߥ. {O O}V Aھ AVګ߭ Oư OV۫ BM ߫V Mm AV V ~ҥ¥ۧ. * @} , * O. M. Y M B ^ګV DS%. MV^ګ߫߭ MVڤڥ oM }ڭ s榥. M}ګlOV O}V, VyM¾M} O}V, O {O ڥ O۰O Ҭ O}V OV۫OQ M. MVVګ et, Mۦ @t þVV AW. ߡ }ߡ @ Msګ A߬O AھVګ߭ } }ڭV s.

11

OV۫ Mߥ Oؾ JM y% y ۾ MYl. ڥ M^ڥ @ک H ~MV- MڦM }ګO. M G V D_} l (O) As~ڧ. CV ۤV s BM} VWM} t nOn Al As V ^` B. O Gs OV OV۫ ۾ TW 榥.

ڥ JV OɥV V}ګ ۾O. My OߥM} @~O۾OV - BMf}, y ( @߫ - Oy%%) C MVOQ }OQM} }Msګ߭ Olo O}ߡ. ڨVV `} ۤڦM V}. y| , Gsڶy|, qO , B , ҡ, Hګ , Gsګ ҡ, Ms , OloV, V - B }Msڥ MåۿO . CV Oɥ MS _`, }VOV ۤɥ. y| V è۫ Ot߾W, Al ƫ ںOy @ %MV W. å% W. CV V B V}, Q d ^MsߥڧV B⴦. O AlV V M MYlO noV Dئ.

Oؾ Bڰ} z%ک V. BV AMl O l, Dإ nOl V. On O}å Vإ, OW M AlV ~% Asڥ P Dؾ}ڡ. ¾ fV ~ڰ}ߡ }MsV A ~MV @} } s~ⴥ, @ BM A%O ڬ fO fګڥ MPy%ڥ ߨ dOQ JM s. dڮڥ MVں߾M Bo fM}W Dz ʥ @%߭. ۾ Vǥ }ڡOQ PQ

}MsV Q VMl }MsV Q OQ V Oؾ. DOߥ OVX O} Ml, V OQ , Ds߯ OV۫ OMå }Msڥ, BsVMf B ɥ t M. , Od, OMYV %O}ڥ Mں%V JM OV۫ڮå% O O GM Ҥ~ B.

ڥ ~Vl Wҥ Oɥ CV Oؾ Mۿ, ÷ۥ, ߥ M}ۥ OګڭtV W åVV, ڶV ߾ߥ AlVV M^ V}ۡ. B }}QOW MYn Al V.

12

O O%VM OV۫ {dOyVMs JM DW , V}æM, MSM C MV 榥. CV B Q POɥ Bۧ. V As}, M^ O - B JM @ڴ߫ڥ ھ. Oɥ Ҥ~ ߨҥ. A {doMW Oۥo @MmW s OQmo QzVM, OV۫ W @ , , MW} B ںMVVMt. lOڥ OMs« V, Pzۦ MW} B MVOQ WX. } MVV O }MP OV۫ڥ ɫOQ Oyۥߥ ߥ%. }ߺ߫߭ ⴥ ޫ. A OV۫ڥ MåۿO ګ߭ AsڷOۥߥ R. BM Ҥ~ M¥ JM }« JV OV۫ڥ ҥڪ V ھɥ. C VW G^` ~ⴥ Aۥ۾O. POW Må۾ګ߭ Oɥ¥ۧ. ߢ%ۥ }y OO¥ۧ. On %ڤ V, sV~no G V Må۾ګ߭ DOMt. sV~lo OV۫ Må۾ګ߭ }MO~noo lo W. VW Må۾ - z Mں% Gs ~loV . M ^Olo߭ Al As~ sV~no }MO~noV M ⴫fgګOQ ۥ.

B~_ V A zV AOޮ% G߭M~. Jپ þVV AW. }VO o ߨҥ. Mۥ}M}å @߼} QW. MV^ګ }ʥ þVVW, Jپ O{}V o AW, @ھ ڥ VV O=} 榥. O߽ @ھߥ @~O O{OMs A VW þ}ڭ V}%. sVO, ߽V @O }ګ AQVW. ۿ }ڥ þV, ߡ t}V O{}V OV۫ƾ߫߭ sڥ ޫ O{ҥ. sVO ڮek o 榥. C G AMVګ߭ OwO ҤVڷOW.

13

Oؾ OV۫ڥ s. OM} þVVV JM }O ۤɥ.@ M Oz, þWO MVں߾ o GsOQ tۧ. C MV Oڥ Ҥ} @ڴ߫OQ @ A^. VV, } VVګ߭ @ @ڴ߫ t Rҥۧ. "OMV' }ߡ " OV۫ ' }MsVګ߭ f OV۫ }O þVVګ߭ t OM}, OV۫ Må۾Oz ~O z߫߭ ߫V{ҥۧ. Ds߯ OV۫ OM @ Oİ O. BV OP%, Ol, %ڤ, V OyOMV. OV۫ڥ @ڴ߫ Må۾ߥ OzV ڪۥ JMs ަOV } G~. O V OV۫ګ߭ VM APW }VOMtۧ. Vo, ̸V C VW s~.

A ^ګ ɨ۫ڥ VM, ںy %y Oߥ MåۿO y~ @ BM} V. O ek, O VW Of Gs Bǥ, d V ^ڮOQ C OХ _ sM} OV۫ Vګ߭ s, OV۫ڥ Mھ%ګ, ګ Vlo d۷ۧ V d۫M Vإߧ OM} Ms t W C {dOy Pþ߾ ګ ~Wⴥ ĺ, A }sޫ AW. POW OV۫MVڥ ~M} ߢ% Bۧ. ߽ - ߽ Gs |}¥ۧ. @ @ߺڥ ۺ } OV۫ڥ ⴫}ۤڥ C % ⴫%椾 % AVڷO.

OV۫ڥ Oɥګ O ߥ۾O. %OQ B , Bt ~þ AlV. EMV M^, MڦM , AV . MV B }䯡O lo, A BM most living fantacy - AߥM Oɥګ M} W @ګ ^OP. Oɥګ Ҥ~ ߨzV O þ}ڭ s߷Oۥߥ O DV, {VV R. Vy - V}Vs W Oؾ OV۫ B Os ^ V @T Oګ%lO ߫߭ Mڦⴥ _} }. OV۫OQ "K , A ' GM @^`. W ^`VV , e۫ڮڥ o= GM }O %V ĥ. @ G @MVV Mھ%ګ߭ oW }ߡ oW V~ ^` % ~ ߷Oۥߥ R.

Oګ%lO þ߫߭ , M, Oګ߭ s M~OW VƾW GM ~ d, A Gǥ OW OV۫ Oګ%lOڥ M~O M~ @}M} o , Oګ%lO ڽz *VM.

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